Monthly Archives: November 2011

Ultrasound Testicular Torsion

For the detection of testicular torsion, the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography approaches 100% for experienced sonologists. An ED study of 36 patients with acute testicular pain had a sensitivity  of 95% and specificity of 94%, when surgical follow-up and … Continue reading

Posted in Genitourinary, Imaging

Urine Dip Leukocyte Esterase and Nitrites

Nitrites are found in urine after bacteria reduce urinary nitrates to nitrites. The test is specific (95%–98%) but not highly sensitive. The usefulness of nitrite positivity in isolation is limited because the uropathogens S saprophyticus, Pseudomonas, and enterococci do not … Continue reading

Posted in Genitourinary, Infectious Disease, Medical

Imaging in Ureterolithiasis

Confirmatory imaging is not mandatory for all patients with a suspected kidney stone. Patients with known urolithiasis, no risk factors for complications (i.e., single kidney, immuno-compromised, renal transplant), a typical presentation, and ensured follow-up may be considered for outpatient treatment … Continue reading

Posted in Genitourinary, Imaging


Tryptophan, the natural amino acid precursor in 5-HT (serotonin) biosynthesis, increases 5-HT synthesis in the brain and, therefore, may stimulate 5-HT release and function. Increased availability of brain 5-HT has been implicated in the regulation of sleep. Multiple studies indicates … Continue reading

Posted in Medical