Category Archives: Nephrology

Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

The clinical presentation of urinary tract infections (UTI) are nonspecific in the febrile child (>100.4). The prevalence of UTIs in the 2-24 month old febrile infant without another source is approximately 5%.  Uncircumcised boys < 60 days of age have the … Continue reading

Posted in Genitourinary, Infectious Disease, Nephrology, Pediatrics | Leave a comment


Ninety eight percent of the body’s potassium is in the intracellular fluid. Acidosis, hyperosmolarity, or cell lysis all cause potassium to leave cells and cause hyperkalemia. Potassium homoeostasis is mainly governed by regulation of renal potassium excretion, controlled by aldosterone. … Continue reading

Posted in Nephrology, Resus

Trauma and the Bean

Injury to the genitourinary (GU) tract occurs in up to 10% of patients presenting with blunt abdominal trauma and the kidney is the most commonly injured GU organ. Blunt trauma accounts for 90% of kidney injuries and is usually caused by … Continue reading

Posted in Nephrology, Trauma

Where do kidney stones come from

The etiology of stone formation is largely unknown. Distinct phenotypes exist that may influence the specific mechanism of stone development. It is believed that most stones form when dissolved salts in the urine reach a supersaturation point and crystals precipitate. … Continue reading

Posted in Genitourinary, Nephrology | 1 Comment